The study of the climate has evolved considerably in recent years as a result of constant efforts to develop tools and methods of observations of its different components that are increasingly accurate and relevant associated with a colossal effort of modeling at different scales. Among these components the atmosphere is that for which the reaction speed is the fastest and therefore the one for which the uncertainties are the greatest. But these advances have also benefited from the very high-resolution study (annual to decadal) of various paleoclimatic recordings providing remarkable references for calibrating these same climate models in environmental contexts totally different from the current one.

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